What does it really cost to include plus sizes?
Today on the blog, I’m breaking down a question that I get a LOT from our community:
“Every time I ask a brand if/ when they will roll out plus sizes I’m met with a similar answer: it’s expensive and we can’t afford it right now. Or something of that sort. Is expanding your size range to include plus sizes really that expensive/ unaffordable for ethical and sustainable apparel brands?”
As a small, ethical and sustainable clothing brand that started with plus sizes I have a unique perspective. In fact, before we were even profitable I made an intentional choice to expand our size range the other way by including straight sizes. You can read all about why I made the decision to expand our size range in a blog post found here.
Before I dig into this reader's question, first, let’s briefly look at how a garment goes from idea to production ready.
The Product Development Process in Apparel
The apparel designer designs a product (this is usually a sketch or technical drawing) and then sends it out to a patternmaker who creates a pattern using the brands “sample size” based on the details provided by the apparel designer.
The sample size is the middle of the size range. For a typical brand this would be a size 6 (middle of 0-12) for a plus size brand this may be a size 20 or 22 for sizes 14-28. Due to the nature of pattern grading (that’s making a pattern larger or smaller) your size range can only be about 7-8 sizes wide. Once it get’s beyond that the process of grading starts to warp the pattern causing all sorts of fit issues.
If a brand elects to have an expansive size range (beyond the typical 0-12 or 14-28) the pattern maker will actually split the size range and create two sometimes three sample patterns and then work from there. Adding plus sizes isn’t as simple as just making the pattern wider (in fact that’s a recipe for a horrific fit).
The added sample patterns (from one pattern to two, sometimes three), which are the building blocks for an apparel brand, are the “increased costs” that most companies are referring to when they reference affordability and size expansion. When a brand that’s served straight sizes ventures into plus, from a pattern making perspective, they’re starting from scratch.
After the first pattern or patterns are made, samples are sewn. Samples are fit on fit models. Patterns are tweaked. Samples are sewn again. Samples are fit on fit models again. And then hopefully, the pattern is green-lit and heads back to the patternmaker for grading (or sizing the pattern smaller and larger). Once all sizes are graded a style is now production ready.
So know that we understand the technical process a little better let’s take a peek at some hard numbers. These are the approximate numbers I paid in 2017 when I originally launched Alice Alexander as a plus size apparel company (sizes 14-28).
- Pattern 1 (a wrap dress in a non-stretch fabric): $150
- Sewn sample in a mock-up fabric: $150
- Fit model 1st fitting ($50 per hour, each style takes about 30 minutes): $25
- Re-patterning/ pattern tweaks: $50
- Sewn sample in final fabric: $250
- Fit model 2nd fitting: $25
- Sample fabric (muslin): $5
- Sample fabric/ final fabrics: $50
- Pattern grading, $13-20 per size depending on complexity: $135
- Pattern printing: $45
- Total: $885
In my experience, for most apparel products to get from idea to production ready, costs about $800-$1,000. But this isn’t a hard and fast rule. It could be far less expensive by taking an existing pattern (such as this wrap dress) and turning it into a blouse, or it could be far more expensive such as designing a fully lined, tailored suit.
When we decided to expand our size range to include sizes 0-30 we had to repeat this process (and the associated costs) for sizes 0-12. But being a new brand, with only a handful of styles this felt like a worthwhile financial investment (and I still stand by that choice 2 years later).
OK, so getting back to the readers question: Yes, it does cost more to have a more inclusive size range and the costs are actualized in the product development/ pre-production stage. BUT it costs about the same as launching a new collection with all new designs. It’s not that plus sizes specifically cost more, it’s that adding new designs costs more (whether these are new styles or new sizes).
To be clear, the increased costs associated with plus size line expansion are NOT associated with fabric or sewing time costs—these differences are nominal. Using an actual example from our store, the difference between a size small Cass Dress and a size 3X Cass Dress is barely a yard of fabric (and that’s an extremely voluminous design) plus an added 10-15 minutes or so of sewing (for the added lengths and widths). The scant additional fabric and sewing time costs are certainly not prohibitive.
Once the design goes to production, then the brand will need to make choices about which sizes and how many of each size to make. For example, if the brand was originally making sizes XS-XL, and making 50 of each size for a total of 250 units, they would either have to make less of each size to include a larger swath of sizes OR make more units. With additional colors and fabrications, the math can get complicated, but hey, that's what google sheets are for. It may feel "harder" but it is 1000% entirely possible.
Without a doubt, electing to create a more inclusive size range is an INVESTMENT in time, money and resources that a brand must CHOOSE to make—it’s a matter of priorities. But to be sure, brands shouldn’t expand their size range because it's the “right thing to do” (even because it is) they should do it because it makes mathematical sense: 68% of American women wear plus sizes, with the average American woman wearing a size 16/18. The global plus size apparel market is valued at 178 BILLION dollars with an annual growth rate of nearly 5%. Surely you’re missing a HUGE part of the market by excluding such a large swath of individuals.
The sustainable and ethical apparel market is known for innovation and for doing hard (but right) things. I’ve seen brands make clothing out of fermented sugar and banana skins; I’ve ogled biodegradable glitter and sustainable sequins; I’ve witnessed a brand hawking wool shoes reach a billion dollar valuation—all of which are not easy feats. Somehow sustainable and ethical apparel brands find the resources to achieve these seemingly insurmountable objectives-- but dressing plus size women, that’s where it gets “too hard”. I'm sorry, I just don’t buy it.
I'll end with this. If you're a sustainable/ ethical apparel brand who has no interest in expanding your size range- own it. Stop promising plus size folks a size expansion is coming if you truly have no interest in serving larger bodies. Stop co-opting the body positive movement by promoting "curvy" models, while refusing to serve anyone over a size 12.
If you're a sustainable/ ethical apparel brand who desperately wants to expand your sizing but needs help, ask for it! It's in the best interest of my brand and this entire movement for MORE brands to be offering inclusive sizes--a rising tide lifts all boats.
If you're a plus size person hanging around for your favorite brand to release their plus size line (but they haven't given you a shred of evidence that said plus size line is actually coming?) Drop them. There are brands doing plus size ethical clothing well (arguably not nearly enough brands) and they need your support.
If you like what you've read here, you'll like our clothes even more. Be sure to sign up for our email list to be the first to know when our next collection drops.